Existing Technologies

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Accelerometer/Sensor Information and Profiled Path

   Good for metro only.
   Low accuracy.
   May require data connectivity.

Example:

http://grouplens.org/site-content/uploads/bhecht_sigspatial2014_subwayps.pdf

GPS Relay

   Can be very expensive to set up.
   Very accurate (depending on setup). 

Example:

http://www.karstworlds.com/2011/01/underground-gps-finally-possible.html

Proprietary

   Can be expensive.
   Accuracy depends on implementation. 

Example:

http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20130819006343/en/Minetec-Partners-CSIRO-Deliver-Revolutionary-Underground-Positioning#.VQ7Sly5WJ-8

http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/STO/Programs/Adaptable_Navigation_Systems_%28ANS%29.aspx

http://www.essensium.com/technology.html

Wi-Fi Positioning Systems

   Requires profiling of area (profiling can be inaccurate depending on factors such as time of day, changes over time).
   Requires data connectivity and database server.
   Medium accuracy.
   Widely used.
   Doesn't work where you cannot profile the access points against known positioning (GPS).

Example:

https://support.google.com/gmm/answer/1646140?hl=en http://lens1.csie.ncku.edu.tw/Library/Paper/IEEE%20MDM%202009/data/3650a371.pdf

http://www.smh.com.au/digital-life/smartphone-apps/indoor-gps-every-step-you-take-every-move-you-make-googles-got-maps-for-you-20121115-29e1b.html

http://redpin.org/

More Technologies

http://www.directionsmag.com/entry/10-things-you-need-to-know-about-indoor-positioning/324602

iBeacon - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBeacon, uses bluetooth. Lower range, can be used to calculate position, requires database connectivity, designed to be context aware rather than used for positioning.

Blue-Dot - http://searchengineland.com/aruba-networks-enables-blue-dot-indoor-navigation-beacons-209405, similar to iBeacon.

Seismic Data -http://www.fastcodesign.com/1671857/can-this-design-student-build-an-open-source-alternative-to-gps#8

http://www.bytelight.com/about

More technologies listed here - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indoor_positioning_system